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The Peter Attia Drive

Jan 23, 2023

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Andy Galpin is a Professor of Kinesiology at California State University at Fullerton, where he studies muscle adaptation and applies his research to work with professional athletes. In this episode, Andy sets the foundation for the conversation by discussing the anatomy, microanatomy, and physiology of the muscle, including explaining what it actually means to undergo hypertrophy of the muscle. He then explains the difference between power, strength, speed, and hypertrophy and how those differences relate to what's happening at the cellular level and the functional unit level. Additionally, he discusses energy sources for muscles, the importance of protein for muscle synthesis, the various types of muscle fibers, and the factors that determine one’s makeup of muscle fibers. Finally, Andy wraps the conversation with how he would design a program for an untrained person committed to adding muscle and functional strength for longevity.

We discuss:

  • Andy’s path to expertise in exercise [3:30];
  • Contrasting strength, power, and force production and how they inform us about training for longevity [9:30];
  • Muscle energetics: Fuels that provide energy to muscles, and the importance of protein [17:45];
  • The structure and microanatomy of muscle, muscle fibers, and more [29:30];
  • Energy demands of skeletal muscle compared to other tissues in the body [39:45];
  • How a muscle contraction works and why it requires ATP [48:00];
  • Muscle fibers: modulation between fiber types with movement and changes in fibers with training and aging [53:15];
  • Andy’s study of twins demonstrating the difference in muscle fibers between a trained and untrained individual [1:02:30];
  • Microanatomy of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers [1:11:15];
  • Factors that determine one’s makeup of muscle fibers and how adaptable they are with training [1:22:15];
  • Hypertrophy and what happens at the cellular level when a muscle grows [1:30:00];
  • How athletes quickly cut water weight and the rehydration process [1:37:30];
  • Different types of athletes [1:47:30];
  • Training advice for a hypothetical client who’s untrained and wants to add muscle and functional strength for longevity [1:49:45];
  • Changes in muscle and muscular function that occur with aging [1:53:45];
  • Training plan for the hypothetical client [1:59:30];
  • What drives muscle hypertrophy? [2:12:15];
  • How to properly incorporate isometric exercises into a workout [2:19:00];
  • Additional training tips: movement patterns, how to finish a workout, and more [2:25:45];
  • Ways to incorporate high heart rate exercise into a workout plan [2:28:45]; and
  • More.

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